Archives

2016

Cover Page

Vol 48, No 1 (2016)

Weather Modifiation, Inc. Beechcraft King Air C90A approaches the next cloud turret during a seeding mission near Lacombe, Alberta as part of operations for the Alberta Hail Suppression
Project on 21 July 2015. Image taken by Mike Torris.

2015

Cover Page

Vol 47, No 1 (2015)

Image taken from the cabin of the University of Wyoming King Air over the Medicine Bow Range during the 2012-13 AgI Seeding Cloud Impact Investigation (ASCII).  Image provided by Bart Geerts.

2014

Cover Page

Vol 46, No 1 (2014)

Ice accumulation on the particle probes and wing front of the University of Wyoming King Air during the AgI Seeding Cloud Impact Investigation (ASCII 2012-13) campaign over the mountains in southern Wyoming. Ground-based glaciogenic seeding was conducted as part of the Wyoming Weather Modification Pilot Project, which will be completed in 2014.  Photo courtesy of Binod Pokharel.

2013

Wyoming Cloud Radar reflectivity Transects

Vol 45, No 1 (2013)

Wyoming Cloud Radar reflectivity transects across a shallow orographic cloud over the Medicine Bow Mountains, which was seeded as part of the Wyoming Weather Modification Pilot Project.  All four transects, 40 km long, were flown between fixed points about 2.6 km downwind of three AgI generators.  The projection of these generators on the transect is shown by star (*) symbols. The change in reflectivity after the second transect may be attributable in part to AgI seeding.

2012

Cover Page

Vol 44, No 1 (2012)

The “Once in a Lifetime” photo was taken by University of North Dakota (UND) Atmospheric Sciences Chief Research Pilot Wayne Schindler on April 22, 2011 in southern Oklahoma from the UND Cessna Citation Research Aircraft. The Citation was being flown in support of the NASA-sponsored Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment.

2011

Cover Page

Vol 43, No 1 (2011)

The project site of the Southeran California Edison Upper San Joaquin Basin Program.  The top photo is the Colby Meadow looking toward Evolution Valley; the bottom photo is the Pioneer Basin looking south. Photos courtesy Rick Stone, RHS Consulting Ltd.

2010

Cover Page

Vol 42, No 1 (2010)

Roger Tilbury looking for suitable clouds in Saudi Arabia - picture taken 4 August 2009 by Duncan Axisa (NCAR). Vigorous convective top capped by pileus composed of small newly nucleated cloud drops - picture taken 11 August 2009 by Mike Chapman (NCAR).

2009

Cover Page

Vol 41, No 1 (2009)

University of Wyoming research aircraft photo courtesy of Prof. Vanda Grubišić, Department of Meteorology and Geophysics, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. SOAR research aircraft photo courtesy of Duncan Axisa, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, USA.

2008

Cover Page

Vol 40, No 1 (2008)

Cover photo of mammatus formation over Rapid City, SD, courtesy of Andrew Detwiler.

2007

Cover Page

Vol 39, No 1 (2007)

Cover photo courtesy of Bruce Boe, Weather Modification Inc. The picture was taken by Ms. Erin Fischer, Data System Operator at Weather Modification Inc.

2006

Cover Page

Vol 38, No 1 (2006)

Cover photos courtesy of Darryl O’Dowd. Top left: Littlefield, Texas 1999 – distant CB tops over 45,000 ft. catch the last rays of the sunset. Top right: Littlefield, Texas 1999 – Cessna 340 with ejectable flares, C-band radar in background. Center: Calgary, Alberta 2004 – replacing burn-in-place (BIP) flares after hail operations (J. Zimmer). Bottom left: Alberta 2004 – punching through daughter cells during hail suppression runs over Calgary. Bottom right: Olds-Didsbury, Alberta 2004 – WMI’s C-band radar used in controlling three aircraft for hail suppression.

2005

Cover Page

Vol 37, No 1 (2005)

In front of Yosemite Falls, courtesy of Steve Chai.


2004

Cover Page

Vol 36, No 1 (2004)

The beautiful Sierra wave clouds, courtesy of Steve Chai.

2003

Cover Page

Vol 35, No 1 (2003)

The cover photograph shows all the components of the 2002 Texas Weather Modification Scientific Program Management, which includes the aircraft fleet, the WSR-78C radar system, the TITAN software and the output from the TITAN package. (See Ruiz-Columbie et al. on page 10.)

2002

Cover Page

Vol 34, No 1 (2002)

Cover photos are courtesy of Mr. Tom Warner, Rapid City, SD. Tom is a crew member/pilot for the T-28 research group at the Institute of Atmospheric Sciences, SDSM&T, Rapid City, SD. He is also a professional photographer; visit his website at www.warnerimages.com for more great photos.

2001

Cover Page

Vol 33, No 1 (2001)

Upper - Cloud Seeding Officer Graeme Vertigan with Cloud Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer (CAPS) and silver iodide ice nucleus generator with burner at the end (in background), mounted on cloud seeding aircraft wing. Upper centre - The Tasmanian Cloud Seeding Crew in front of Cloud Seeding aircraft, Kevron’s Cessna Conquest (VH-LEM).  Upper right - Large cumulus cloud over Rosebery, Tasmania.  Bottom left - Early morning cumulonimbus cloud, Western Victoria. Bottom centre - Scientific Officer Christina Nebel inside cloud seeding aircraft with M200 data acquisition and display system. Bottom right - Reece Dam on Spill, West Coast of Tasmania, Australia.
The satellite image of Australia (centre image) is a "Bureau of Meteorology image from the Japan Meteorological Agency geostationary satellite GMS-4".  The image was taken on 9 January 1992. Centre image - Summary of cloud seeding operations and experiments conducted in Australia to date, experimental areas marked on satellite image.

2000

Cover Page

Vol 32, No 1 (2000)

This is a reproduction of Figure 1, Map of Mendoza, Province, Argentina showing the three areas of operations: North (Mendoza and San Martin), Central (Tunuyan), South (San Rafael). See the paper by Krausset et al. this issue.

1999

Cover Page

Vol 31, No 1 (1999)

Upper left - Headquarters, with C-band radar and tower in background, of the West Texas Weather Modification Association, San Angelo, Texas. (Photo courtesy George Bomar)

Upper right - The South Dakota School of Mines & Technology T-28 aircraft collected cloud physics data in 1994 as part of the Texas Weather Modification Project (it was supported by Texas Water Commission Grant No. 4200000082 and NSF Grant No. A TM 9104474). (Photo taken by William Woodley)

Bottom photo shows a map of the Texas Weather Modification Program (see Bomar et al., pg. 9) 


1998

Cover Page

Vol 30, No 1 (1998)

Top left: P-51 cloud seeding aircraft, located in Belle Fourche, SD, 1962.

Top right: Apache aircraft, used in 1965 by the Institute of Atmospheric Sciences, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, for cloud sampling measurements of the Black Hills in the South Dakota area.

Bottom left: T-6 aircraft with pilot, Charles Nelson, as part of the North Dakota Pilot Project carried out in McKenzie Co., North Dakota, 1972.

Bottom right: Beaver aircraft with pilot, Fred Anderson, used for AgI and salt seeding as part of the North Dakota Pilot Project carried out in McKenzie Co., North Dakota, 1972.

(Cover photos courtesy Institute of Atmospheric Sciences, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology) 


1997

Cover Page

Vol 29, No 1 (1997)

From a series of 38 photographs taken during a hygroscopic flare seeding event focused on orographic cumulus over the San Joaquin River watershed in California’s southern Sierra range. (See paper in this volume.) Photos trace the dramatic change in cloud and precipitation dynamics through the hours of 1531 to 1842. Seeded cloud remains stationary while smaller cumulus clouds merge with the primary cell. This seeding event, and several other similar hygroscopic field experiments conducted by Atmospherics Incorporated over the past several years, simultaneously produced large quantities of 5-6 mm diameter graupel (snow pellets) and 3-5 mm diameter frozen droplets (hail), all reaching ground level. The latter have opaque centers surrounded by clear ice, suggesting hygroscopic seeding application may act as a catalyst for producing hailstones.

(Cover photos courtesy Tom Henderson, Atmospherics Incorporated, July 1996)


1996

Cover Page

Vol 28, No 1 (1996)

Hydrometeor identification with polarization radar. NOAA/Environmental Technology Laboratory Ka-band (8.66 mm) radar RHI images from a winter snowstorm observed during the Winter Icing and Storms Project (2 km range rings, 2039 UTC 08 February 1994, Erie, Colorado). Reflectivity (top image) shows a vertical slice through a precipitating, -5 to + 11 dBZ convective cell, and an underlying -7 to -20 dBZ layer cloud. The corresponding elliptical depolarization ratio (EDR, bottom image) defines three distinct polarization regimes, one of the convective cloud, one for the layer cloud, and one where the hydrometeors from the two are mixing. In the layer cloud, EDR changes significantly (by 10 dB) from low elevation angles to zenith; this pattern and the depolarization values match theory for ice crystals of the thick plate growth habit. In the convective cell, EDR is invariant with elevation angle but larger in magnitude than a -14.8 dB value corresponding to spheres and drizzle; this signature corresponds to less-than-spherical graupel. These signatures were verified by samples of graupel that scavenged thick plates, taken at the ground in the zone of the mix (insert, sample from the NCAR microphysics van). See article by Reinking, Matrosov, and Bruintjes in this issue for applications to weather modification.
(Cover photo courtesy Roger Reinking, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)

1995

Cover Page

Vol 27, No 1 (1995)

Cover photos by Editor of attendees at the North Dakota Tracer Experiment and North Dakota Thunderstorm Project Analysis Meeting, Oct 12-14, 1994 at Ranch A -- South of Beulah, WY

1994

Cover Page

Vol 26, No 1 (1994)

Cover photo of Vincent J. Schaefer was provided by T. J. Henderson, Atmospherics Incorporated.

1993

Cover Page

Vol 25, No 1 (1993)

Cover photos provided by Mr. Bruce Boe, Director, North Dakota Atmospheric Resource Board. These photos were taken in the vicinity of Bismarck, North Dakota, as part of the North Dakota Thunderstorm Project held during the summer of 1989.

1992

Cover Page

Vol 24, No 1 (1992)

Cover photos were taken in connection with the UTAH/NOAA Atmospheric Modification Program. The field program took place in January-March 1991 on the Wasatch Plateau in central Utah.

1991

Cover Page

Vol 23, No 1 (1991)

Photographs courtesy of Tom Henderson, Atmospherics Incorporated, Fresno, CA

1990

Cover Page

Vol 22, No 1 (1990)

[Courtesy of Bruce Boe, North Dakota Cloud Modification Program (NDCMP)]
A tomadic mesoscale convective system (MCS) covers most western North Dakota as shown in this infrared satellite image recorded at OOZ 29 June 1989. The North Dakota Cloud Modification Program, an operational hail suppression project which relies on airborne seeding of developing convection, employed real-time satellite imagery to assist decision making. The coldest cloud tops (cream color, about -55"C) were associated with hail of up to 1.75 inch diameter. Though the MCS moved through the heart of one of the NDCMP operational districts, only three of the twenty-eight hail reports received came from within that district. (For more information, see paper by Boe and Jung.)

1989

Cover Page

Vol 21, No 1 (1989)

Satellite views of the Yellowstone and Uinta fires on the afternoon of 7 September 1988.
Image processing by Edmond W . Holroyd, III.
Fires: red and orange
Cloud temperatures:  white and gray > 0°C; 0°C > green > -20°C; -20°C > blue.

See paper by Holroyd and Super for further details.

1988

Cover Page

Vol 20, No 1 (1988)

Cover photos: Tom Henderson

1987

Cover Page

Vol 19, No 1 (1987)

Cover photos: Tom Henderson


1985

Cover Page

Vol 17, No 1 (1985)

This year marks the first time in the 35 year history of the Weather Modification Association that a meeting has been organized in any county beyond the United States, Canada and Mexico. Because of its lengthy and auspicious background in cloud physics research and weather modification operations programs, France was an appropriate candidate for this "first" in WMA history.

The various areas of France, and the programs conducted by French scientists, are not new to many WMA members. Examples of memorable events include the Instrumentation Conference in Lannemezan (September 1967) and the International Cloud Physics and Weather Modification Conferences in Clermont-Ferrand (August 1980). Within our scientific community these meetings have always provided the WMA members with enthusiasm and encouragement for both research and applied activities.

The cover of Volume 17 was chosen in support of the WMA September meeting Clermont-Ferrand and Toulouse.  These cities boast the Institutet Observatoire de Physique du Globe, Observatoire du Puy de Dome (Clermont-Ferrand) and the Association Nationale D'Etude et de Lutte Contre les Fleaux Atmospheriques (Toulouse). The maps on the Journal cover show these cities located in southern and south-central France, certainly within some of the loveliest rural areas in the world.

The Association is grateful to our French colleagues for providing the opportunity.


1984

Cover Page

Vol 16, No 1 (1984)

Olin H. Foehner, Jr., was lost at sea while scuba diving near St. Martin in the West Indies, May 27, 1983. During his active and productive career, Olin was a strong proponent of weather modification operations and research programs at the international level. With the Bureau of Reclamation in the U.S., Olin served as the first Director of the Sierra Cooperative Pilot Project. He exerted a leading role in the initial planning and design of the SCPP until he was reassigned as Director of the Colorado River Enhanced Snowpack Test. While SCPP Director, the project moved from the initial planning stage to the full design phase. During the same period, the project’s field office was established at Auburn, California, the Skywater X Conference was held, the Sierra Ecology Project was initiated in cooperation with the Forest Service Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, and a variety of cooperative activities were initiated with the states of Nevada and California, several universities and private sector groups. Olin’s energy, his dedication to the long-term Skywater objectives, and his appreciation of new ideas contributed immensely to the programs and success of the SCPP and other Bureau of Reclamation weather modification programs under their Division of Atmspheric Resources Research. As a professional and good friend, many colleagues will miss both his expertise and good humor.

Profesional and Scientific Societies: Professional Engineer - Colorado, American Society of Civil Engineers, Denver Federal Center Professional Enginers Group, Western Snow Conference, Weather Modification Association


1983

Cover Page

Vol 15, No 1 (1983)

The use of rockets as delivery systems for artificial ice nuclei in modern cloud modification programs has been an important part of the developing technology for more than 30 years. The use in the United States has been limited to a few small scale operational efforts in such areas as Colorado and Utah, and in one major research program, the National Hail Research Experiment in Colorado. However, cloud seeding rockets have found extensive program use in countries such as Argentina, Bulgaria, China, France, Hungry, Italy, Switzerland and Yugoslavia. The most impressive rocket effort in both operation and research has been in the Soviet Union. The major research program designed to test the efficacy of Soviet rockets to suppress hail damage is Grossversuch IV. This has been a collaborative program, coordinated the Institute for Atmospheric Physics of ETH in Zurich, Switzerland, and included the participation of the universities and government agencies of France, Italy and Switzerland. The objective has been to test whether a hail suppression method similar to the one proposed by scientists in the Soviet Union can successfully be applied in Central Europe. Since 1970, Dr. Bruno Federer was the able leader of the program and through the years developed an international reputation as a dedicated and enthusiastic scientist. The cover photographs show examples of the rocket activity under Dr. Federer’s direction during the Grossversuch IV program. Photographs by Thomas J. Henderson, Atmospherics Incorporated.

1982

Cover Page

Vol 14, No 1 (1982)

It is difficult to overemphasize the importance of the freezing process in our investigation of basic precipitation mechanisms. Supercooled liquid water and ice crystals, along with the infinite processes of accretion and aggregation, continue to cover our workbench with stimulating unknown. What really makes ice erystals form the vapor and liquid phases? How do these crystals actually accrete water in the presence of atmospheric moisture? How do the aggregation process produce such a fantastic array of shapes and sizes? This year’s cover illustrates some of the products which are produced by the interaction of these process. Water vapor, hoar frost, supercooled liquid water, individual ice crystals, rime ice, and snowflakes have come together on our outdoor workbench to tease our imagination in the field of chemistry, meteorology, mechanics, cloud physics, climatology, atmospheric electricity and optics, to name only a few. The scene is in Norris Basin during one of the early years of the Yellowstone Field Research Expedition. Photograph by Thomas J. Henderson, Atmospherics Incorporated.

1981

Cover Page

Vol 13, No 1 (1981)

As part of our emphasis on applied programs at the international level, the Editor has chosen a sampling of subjects from several countries for presentation on the cover of Volume 13. As shown from left to right, these are: 
Top row: Dr. Vincent J. Schaefer making CN measurements on the north end of Hokkaido Island, Japan. Burn units on the large Meteotran lannemezan, France. Cloud seeding pyrotechnics burning on the aircraft rack. U.S.A.
Center row: Israeli cloud seeding aircraft. Tel Aviv, Israel. Bruno Federer and rocket launch on Grosversuch IV Program. Switzerland. M. T. Abshaev and large weather modification radar system. Nalchik, Soviet Union.
Bottom row: Cloud seeding aircraft at end of day. U.S.A. Radar system on operation program. Vallenar, Chile.  Airborne silver iodide generator. Canberra, Australia.
Atmospherics Incorporated photographs by: Thomas J. Henderson

1980

Cover Page

Vol 12, No 1 (1980)

As we move ahead into this decade, cumulus clouds may assume a new and exciting role in our search for source of supplemental water in the atmosphere. The roots of serious cloud seeding programs found their origin in winter orographic clouds, particularly in the mountain areas of the western United States. The continuing applications programs have provided data for evaluations which strongly suggest positive results. But summer cumulus clouds over many areas of the world will certainly be one of the new generation of important investigations during the 1980’s.  Atmospherics Incorporated photograph by:  Thomas J. Henderson

1979

The Journal of Weather Modification Volume 11 Number 1 April 1979

Vol 11, No 1 (1979)

The Sierra Cooperative Pilot Project (SCPP) is a research effort of the Bureau of Reclamation’s Office of Atmospheric Resources Management (OARM) Project Skywater - in and near the American River Watershed, California. This long-term research program is important to the enhancement of of nation’s future water supply and is part of a larger effort by the Bureau to optimize current cloud seeding technology. A portion of the SCPP involves the siting and installation of of various  meteorological instrumentation, the maintenance of that network, the collection and reduction of data from the instrumentation, and the analysis of the data in support of the overall evaluation of the SCPP. The cover photograph shows one of the precipitation gauge installations within the study area. In the snow area, the gages are charged with an antifreeze solution and oil film to prevent freezing and evaporation. Bureau of Reclamation Photograph by: D. M. Westphal.

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